Module 3 – Home


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Modular Learning Objectives

By the end of this module, the student shall be able to satisfy the following outcomes expectations:

  • Case

o Analyze a problem situation implementing the Analyze Phase of DMAIC

In Module 3 you will continue to complete your Blackbelt project as you move into the Analyze Phase.


  1. Follow data collection plan from Measurement Phase
  2. Determine best tools to use to analyze data
  3. develop data analysis using appropriate tools: regression, ANOVA, Pareto Diagrams, etc.
  4. Interpret Data, what does it mean? How does it help to determine the problem and the solutions?
  5. Calculate Sigma and other relevant statistics
  6. Validate Target Performance levels of the Process
  7. Determine root causes: Five why’s, Fishbone, Brainstorming, other
  8. Formulate initial possible solutions to the problem
  9. Write Analyze Phase Report


Required Reading

Module 3 is about the Analyze phase of the project. Some of the questions that need to be answered in this phase are:

  • Current state analysis
  • Is the current state as good as the process can do?
  • Who will help make the changes?
  • What resources will we need?
  • What could cause this change effort to fail?
  • What major obstacles do I face in completing this project?

A – Analyze Phase: Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects.

  • Define Performance Objectives
  • Identify Value/Non-Value Added Process Steps
  • Identify Sources of Variation
  • Determine Root Cause(s)
  • Determine Vital Few x’s, Y=f(x) Relationship • Histogram
  • Pareto Chart
  • Time Series/Run Chart
  • Scatter Plot
  • Regression Analysis
  • Cause and Effect/Fishbone Diagram
  • 5 Whys
  • Process Map Review and Analysis
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Hypothesis Testing (Continuous and Discrete)
  • Non-Normal Data Analysis


iSix Sigma, Six Sigma DMAIC Reference

Analyze Phase

Deliverables Of Phase:

Data and process analysis, root cause analysis, quantifying the gap/opportunity.

Checkpoints For Completion:

Data and Process Analysis

  • Identify gaps between current performance and the goal performance.

Root Cause Analysis

  • Generate list of possible causes (sources of variation).
  • Segment and stratify possible causes (sources of variation).
  • Prioritize list of ‘vital few’ causes (key sources of variation).
  • Verify and quantify the root causes of variation.

Quantifying the Gap/Opportunity

  • Determine the performance gap.
  • Display and communicate the gap/opportunity in financial terms.

Questions To Determine Appropriate Application:

Data and Process Analysis

  • What does the data say about the performance of the business process?
  • Did any value-added analysis or ‘lean thinking’ take place to identify some of the gaps shown on the ‘as is’ process map?
  • Was a detailed process map created to amplify critical steps of the ‘as is’ business process?
  • How was the map generated, verified, and validated?
  • What did the team gain from developing a sub-process map?
  • What were the crucial ‘moments of truth’ on the map?
  • Were there any cycle time improvement opportunities identified from the process analysis?
  • Were any designed experiments used to generate additional insight into the data analysis?
  • Did any additional data need to be collected?
  • What model would best explain the behavior of output variables in relation to input variables?

Root Cause Analysis

  • What tools were used to generate the list of possible causes?
  • Was a cause-and-effect diagram used to explore the different types of causes (or sources of variation)?
  • What tools were used to narrow the list of possible causes?
  • Were Pareto charts (or similar) used to portray the ‘heavy hitters’ (or key sources of variation)?
  • What conclusions were drawn from the team’s data collection and analysis?
  • How did the team reach these conclusions?

Quantifying the Gap/Opportunity

  • What is the cost of poor quality as supported by the team’s analysis?
  • Is the process severely broken such that a re-design is necessary?
  • Would this project lend itself to a DFSS project?
  • What are the revised rough order estimates of the financial savings/opportunity for the improvement project?
  • Have the problem and goal statements been updated to reflect the additional knowledge gained from the analyze phase?
  • Have any additional benefits been identified that will result from closing all or most of the gaps?
  • What were the financial benefits resulting from any ‘ground fruit or low-hanging fruit’ (quick fixes)?
  • What quality tools were used to get through the analyze phase?

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