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- The numerical value for a correlation ranges between ________ and ________.
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negative infinity; positive infinity
- If all the points on a scatterplot fall on a single line:
there is no relation between the variables.
the relation between the variables is perfect.
the variables are causally related.
there is a positive correlation between the two variables.
- Accordingto guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of________ is considered small, ________ is medium, and _______ is strong.
0.10; 0.30; 0.50+
0.25; 0.50; 0.75
0.40; 0.60; 0.80
1.00; 2.00; 3.00
- When using the Pearson correlation coefficient in hypothesis testing, we determine whether the correlation is:
significantly different from zero.
accurate for the sample.
accurate for the population.
- Which of the following statements accurately captures a positive correlation?
anassociation such that participants with low scores on one variable tendto have high scores on the other variables as well, and those with highscores on one variable tend to have low scores on the other variable
one variable reliably predicts the scores on a second variable because they move perfectly together
anassociation such that participants with high scores on one variabletend to have high scores on the other variables as well, and those withlow scores on one variable tend to have low scores on the othervariable.
an association in which one variable is a multiplicative factor of the other variable.
- According to Cohen’s published standards, a correlation coefficient of 0.34 is considered to represent:
a small effect.
a medium effect.
a large effect.
- What is the null hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?
μ1 = μ2
- If a test actually measures what it is intended to measure, then that test:
does not suffer from restriction of range problems.
is internally consistent.
- Assumethat the correlation coefficient between class attendance and number ofproblems missed on an exam is (–0.77). Which statement regarding thisfinding is correct?
If you start attending class more regularly, the number of problems you miss on the next exam is certain to be reduced.
There is definitely no causal relationship between the two variables.
If you attend class regularly, you are more likely to do well on the exam than someone who does not attend class regularly.
The correlation provides definitive information pertaining to causation.
- In the equation Ŷ = 130 + 5(X1) + 3(X2), what is the y intercept?
- Readingleft to right, a negative slope looks like a line going ________, whilea positive slope looks like a line going ________.
- The Pearson correlation coefficient is symbolized:
- A positive correlation between head size and foot size indicates that:
having a large head causes a person to have large feet.
having large feet causes a person to have a large head.
people with larger feet also tend to have larger heads.
people with larger feet tend to have smaller heads.
- Once we have an equation for a straight line through our data, we can:
look at each value on the x-axis and predict its corresponding value on the y-axis.
speculate about the causal relationship.
use an independent-samples t test to compare means.
compute post hoc tests.
- Correlations help us look at the ________ between two variables.
- (Figure:Age and Penalty Minutes) The following figure depicts the relationbetween a hockey player’s age and the number of minutes he spent in thepenalty box during the regular 2006–2007 season. The 18 players weremembers of the New Jersey Devils hockey team who played in more than 40games that season. Figure: Age and Penalty Minutes[img src=”http://learn.liberty.edu/courses/1/PSYC355_B03_201440/ppg/respondus/pool_PSYC355_EXAM3_Ch1314_122013/image00252bc4fb7.gif” alt=”” align=”bottom” border=”0″> Basedon the scatterplot, what is the relation between a hockey player’s ageand the number of minutes he spent in the penalty box?
- Beforecalculating the correlation coefficient, it is advisable to create a________ as a way of displaying the association between the twovariables.
- The standardized regression coefficient is symbolized by:
- Which of the following numbers would represent a perfect correlation?
–1.00 or 1.00
- To predict a single dependent variable from more than one independent variable, which statistical technique would we use?
structural equation modeling
simple linear regression
- Regression is to ________ as correlation is to ________.
- Whenthe Pearson correlation coefficient is computed on sample data, it issymbolized by ________, and when it is computed on population data, itis symbolized by ________.
- Basedon research with her patients, Dr. Sabine knows that the correlationcoefficient between scores on an anxiety scale and comfort at a socialgathering is –0.35. According to guidelines established by Cohen, howcould we characterize the strength of this relationship?
- Psychometricians are concerned with:
developing high quality tests and measures.
fixing psychological issues in people.
studying illness and the onset of psychological illness.
statistics and computers.
- The tendency of scores that are particularly high or low to drift toward the mean over time is called:
simple linear regression.
standard error of the mean.
regression to the mean.
standard error of the estimate.
- Withregression we are concerned about variability around the ________,rather than variability around the ________ which would be the case in ttests or ANOVAs.
median; tails of the distribution
line of best fit; mean
outliers; line of best fit
- APearson correlation coefficient is calculated for 48 individuals. Whatvalue of df should be used to determine statistical significance inhypothesis testing?
- Test-retest reliability is determined by:
administeringthe same measure to the same sample at two different points in time andcalculating the correlation between an individual’s performance on thetwo administrations.
administeringthe same measure to two different samples at two different points intime and calculating the correlation between an individual’s performanceat the two different times
correlatingthe odd numbered items of a measure with an individual’s performance onthe even numbered items of that same measure.
correlatingthe odd numbered items of a measure with an individual’s performance onthe even numbered items of a different measure.
- Which of the following numbers would indicate the strongest relationship between two variables?
- In the formula Ŷ = a + b (X), a is the:
predicted value for the dependent variable.
observed value on the independent variable.
- What kind of correlation would you expect to find between the age of a car (nonclassic. and its value?
- What is the research hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?
μ 1 = μ 2
- Simple linear regression allows us to:
determine the relation among four or more variables.
predict an individual’s score on a dependent variable from her score on multiple independent variables.
predict an individual’s score on the dependent variable from her score on the independent variable.
infer the direction of causal relations.
- In the formula Ŷ = a + b (X), b is the:
predicted value for the dependent variable.
observed value on the independent variable.
- The three main characteristics of the correlation coefficient include all of the following except:
it can be either positive or negative.
positive correlations are more common than negative correlations.
it is the strength of the coefficient, not its sign, that indicates how large it is.
it always falls between –1.0 and 1.0.
- Levene’s test evaluates the assumption that
the means of the groups are homogeneous, or equal.
the difference between the scores of the groups are significant.
the scores are normally distributed.
the variances of the groups are homogeneous, or equal.
- Below are the possible results of a one-way ANOVA with an alpha level set at .05. Which results are significant?
F(2, 31) = 7.98, p = .06
F(2, 31) = 9.87, p = .50
F(2, 31) = 12.3, p = .04
F(2, 31) = 10.7, p = .12
- The most common way for an independent samples t test to be reported in a research article is
t(45) = 3.5, p < .05.
t(i:29) < .05.
t(independent) = 2.9, significant.
independent t(15): 30, p: significant.
- At the end of a hypothesis test (like any one of the t-tests for example), the researcher must use the results to
try to prove that the research hypothesis is absolutely true.
make a decision about whether or not to reject the null hypothesis.
make a definitive statement that the null hypothesis is either true or false.
support his or her theoretical preconceptions, regardless of the outcome.
Apsychologist wants to determine whether different psychiatric diagnosesaffect the length of stay for patients in a residential treatmentfacility. She collects data on length of stay for patients with threedifferent diagnoses: affective disorders, drug-related disorders, andcognitive disorders. She compares the scores of these three groups.Which type of test should she use to analyze the results?
bivariate regression analysis
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