Social Drugs of America

American society underwent an illogical science of urgency off late which conjures up the memories of the lost history relevant to the drugs of America. Marijuana can also be touted as the most significant course to unearth revolutions and debates for such medical abuses evolved in the country. The revolution led to many sophisticated transitions which list them all as remarkable events in the history of America. However, a brief study into history of all fundamental sources and laws of Marijuana gives us an instant picture of determination and reliance in its very regard.

An excerpt from the papers titled as Marijuana as a social drug will lead to a better understanding of the drug, “ Marijuana is one of the most critical substance abuse problems in the United States today. The use of marijuana and alcohol has risen to the point where almost every facet of society has been touched by the use of both. In addition, marijuana as a substance affects several aspects of human performance, including perception, memory, psychomotor skills, and social behavior.

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Marijuana, like tobacco and other drugs, does not have a single effect upon humans, but does have some similar properties which cause certain types of behavior to occur in most users (Kinfe, et al. , 1989). One additional problem is social, in which many believe past marijuana use should be publicly documented for certain professions. Others see this as phony, moralizing, or counter-productive (Kinsley, 1990). Marijuana, or cannabis sativa, has been linked with human culture for more than 4,000 years.

In fact, the first written account of use of marijuana occurred in Chinese literature around 2700 B. C. (Smith, 1970, p. 3). As an historical phenomenon, the use of marijuana appeared in the literature of many ancient societies, and even from the earliest accounts, was noted to have a profound effect upon the human organism (Marijuana as a Social Drug). ” According to an article on the website NIDA (National Institute of Drug Abuse), “Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States.

It is a dry, shredded green and brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves derived from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. The main active chemical in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC. Marijuana is usually smoked as a cigarette (joint) or in a pipe. It is also smoked in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana. Since the blunt retains the tobacco leaf used to wrap the cigar, this mode of delivery combines marijuana’s active ingredients with nicotine and other harmful chemicals.

Marijuana can also be mixed in food or brewed as a tea. As a more concentrated, resinous form it is called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid, hash oil. Marijuana smoke has a pungent and distinctive, usually sweet-and-sour odor. Scientists have learned a great deal about how THC acts in the brain to produce its many effects. When someone smokes marijuana, THC rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream, which carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body.

THC acts upon specific sites in the brain, called cannabinoid receptors, kicking off a series of cellular reactions that ultimately lead to the “high” that users experience when they smoke marijuana. Some brain Rashali 2 areas have many cannabinoid receptors; others have few or none. The highest density of cannabinoid receptors are found in parts of the brain that influence pleasure, memory, thoughts, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement.

Not surprisingly, marijuana intoxication can cause distorted perceptions, impaired coordination, difficulty in thinking and problem solving, and problems with learning and memory. Research has shown that marijuana’s adverse impact on learning and memory can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off. As a result, someone who smokes marijuana every day may be functioning at a suboptimal intellectual level all of the time. Research on the long-term effects of marijuana abuse indicates some changes in the brain similar to those seen after long-term abuse of other major drugs.

For example, cannabinoid withdrawal in chronically exposed animals leads to an increase in the activation of the stress-response system and changes in the activity of nerve cells containing dopamine. Dopamine neurons are involved in the regulation of motivation and reward, and are directly or indirectly affected by all drugs of abuse (NIDA InfoFacts: Marijuana). ” Possession of 60 grams of Marijuana or less than that in the first offense attracts a fine of $ 100-$500 or a jail term for six months in Montana.

Americans laws on Marijuana vary from state to state so it’s better to divide them into certain categories and learn about them briefly ((Marijuana Laws). Moreover, subsequent offenses can lead to three years of imprisonment and a fine of $1000 but- possession of more than 60 grams of Marijuana can send you behind the bars for twenty years and can make you shell out $50,000 (Marijuana Laws-Montana). As mentioned in details in the article Montana Laws for Marijuana, “production or manufacture of one pound or less of marijuana is punishable by up to 10 years in jail and a fine up to $50,000.

For amounts greater than one pound or more than 30 plants, the penalty includes a two-year mandatory minimum sentence to life in prison and a fine up to $50,000. Subsequent convictions can double the possible sentence. Sale or distribution of marijuana carries a penalty of 1 year – life in prison and a fine up to $50,000. Sale to a minor carries an additional penalty of 2 years – life in prison and a fine up to $50,000. Any sale within 1,000 feet of a school also adds an additional 3 years – life in prison and a fine up to $50,000.

All dangerous drug convictions require the offender to attend a dangerous drug information course. There is also the possibility of alternative sentencing such as fines, drug treatment, community service or probation if the court feels that incarceration is not warranted. The penalty for possession or sale of paraphernalia is up to six months in jail and a fine up to $500 (Marijuana Laws-Montana). ” James Austin, in his article The Decriminalization Movement clarifies a controversial debate about the possible merits to society that might be brought about by decriminalizing or legalizing marijuana.

In 1973, Oregon and other 12 states altered their existing laws to reduce the penalties of Marijuana possession (The Decriminalization Movement). Some other local cities also modified their local ordinance and criminal justice practices to decriminalize it (The Decriminalization Movement). James Austin summarized the following basic tenets of the cost saving arguments in this article: 1. The criminal justice system, ranging from police to corrections, now allocates a significant portion of its budgets arresting, prosecuting, sentencing and incarcerating

Rashali 3 marijuana users, dealers and others involved in the illegal drug infrastructure (e. g. , transporters, manufacturers of drug paraphernalia, etc. ). 2. If these behaviors would no longer be labeled as criminal, criminal justice agencies would reduce the enforcement and processing tasks now associated with such crimes. 3. There is a direct relationship between the proportion of arrests or cases processed for marijuana crimes by the criminal justice system and the amount of money expended by these same agencies. 4.

By reducing or eliminating these marijuana related events, there would be a proportionate decrease in the agency expenses (The Decriminalization Movement). However, decriminalizing Marijuana will lead to great use of drugs and there would be relevant increase in the non-criminal justice costs associated with medical, mental health and even losses in worker productivity (The Decriminalization Movement). According to the survey mentioned in the article by James Austin, “25. 8 million people or nearly one out of ten US residents use marijuana at least once a year and over 6% of the population uses the drug on a monthly basis.

The lifetime use estimate of marijuana is a hefty 95 million, meaning that 47% of all adults have tried marijuana at least once (The Decriminalization Movement). ” Marijuana is a weird drug with weird uses. Following excerpts support the thought. “Sometimes men dressed in leather suits or jackets pass through the fields of cannabis sativa rubbing and crushing roughly against the plants early in the morning just after sunrise and when a fall of dew has taken place. The resinous material which sticks on is then scraped off their jackets and forms the charas resin of commerce.

”—Chopra, R. N ( Indigenous Drugs of India, p. 78). “It acts as a soporific or hypnotic causing sleep; as an anodyne in lulling irritation; as an antispasmodic in checking cough and cramp; as a nervine stimulant in removing languor and anxiety; also in raising the pulse and enlivening the spirits, without any drawback or deduction of indirect or incidental convenience; conciliating tranquil repose without causing nausea, constipation or other signs of effect or indigestion, without headache or stupor. ”—Aulde, J. : (Ther.

Gazette, 6:523, 1890). “Indian hemp, night and morning and continued for some time, is the most valuable remedy met with in the treatment of persistent headache. ”—(Letter from London: The Lancet, December 3, 1887, p. 732. ) Synthetic Cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in many countries. THC reduces tumor growth in lung cancer by 50 percent and also reduces the ability of the cancer to spread. Donald Tushkin found out in 2006 that smoking marijuana doesn’t increase the risk of lung cancer or head and neck malignancies.

He reported it in his study named, “Marijuana Use and Lung Cancer: Results of a Case-Control Study”. Medical cannabis reduce the risk of breast cancer from spreading throughout the body. Investigators at Columbia University concluded that Marijuana has a clear medical benefit in HIV-positive patients. It is helpful in curing Brain Cancer (Medical Cannabis). So much of it, but does it really live up to the expectations? Let’s dig into more facts to find out the truth. Rashali 4 Director of the White House Office of National Drug Lee P.

Brown writes in his article that illegal drugs should not be legalized. He writes about the gravest part like drug-exposed infants, drug-induced accidents, and loss of productivity and employment (Legalization would be Disaster). “The Dutch policy of “responsible” drug use has resulted in thousands of foreigners going to the Netherlands to buy drugs. These users then commit crimes to support their habits and drain Dutch taxpayers to provide treatment for their addictions. The number of marijuana and heroin users has increased significantly,” (Drugs Are Major Social Problems).

On the contrary Peter Moskos of John Jay College of Criminal Justice writes about legalizing them. He writes, “It’s not as crazy as it sounds. Legalization does not mean giving up. It means regulation and control. By contrast, criminalization means prohibition. But we can’t regulate what we prohibit, and drugs are too dangerous to remain unregulated (Drugs are too dangerous not to regulate). ” Peter Moskos doesn’t bother to debate on good or bad drugs but he enforces the basic necessities which can curb the drug.

He supports the theory that regulation can reduce the drug use. “In two generations, we’ve halved the number of cigarette smokers not through prohibition but through education, regulated selling, and taxes. And we don’t jail nicotine addicts. Drug addiction won’t go away, but tax revenue can help pay for treatment, (Drugs are too Dangerous not to regulate, Moskos). ” Marijuana seems to have brought a lot controversial issues since its evolution in the 20th century. The debate over its regulations has no end.

However, the statistics bases on reliable sources present an ungrateful picture of the world rapt in the drug. Such attributions can lead to a dark phase instead. Rashali 5 Works Cited Aulde, J. : (Ther. Gazette, 6:523, 1890). Drugs Are Too Dangerous Not To Regulate-We Should Legalize Them. US News, World Report. The nation’s drug problems should be controlled through regulation and taxation by Peter Moskos. July 25, 2008. May 9, 2010. http://www. usnews. com/articles/opinion/2008/07/25/two-takes-drugs-are-too-dangerous-not-to-regulate–we-should-legalize-them.

html? s_cid=related-links:TOP Drugs Are a Major Social Problem-We can not legalize them. US News, World Report. Legalization Would be Disaster by Lee P. Brown. July 25, 2008. May 9, 2010. http://www. usnews. com/opinion/articles/2008/07/25/two-takes-drugs-are-a-major-social-problem-we-cannot-legalize-them. html. Indigenous Drugs of India, p. 78. Letter from London: The Lancet, December 3, 1887, p. 732. Marijuana As a Social Drug. Excerpt from the paper. Monday, November 6, 2009. May 9, 2010. http://www. lotsofessays. com/viewpaper/1682792. htm

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